‘Mule hi deva gharchi phule’, one of the famous Marathi proverbs meaning- children are flowers from God’s own home. It expresses the emotions towards kids very accurately. As parents we find every child as a beautiful and delicate flower which we want to protect from every thorn. However, some things are out of our control e.g. developmental disorders in children which are inherited genetically, caused due to trauma during the term of pregnancy or caused after the birth of the infant. Following are few of the disorders which are largely observed in children:
Autism Spectrum Disorder:
The causal factors of ASD are not specific. It can be anything from genetic to any environmental trauma caused during infancy. It’s key symptom comprises of social impairments involving lack of interaction with others, inability to make and sustain conversation, lack of emotional expressions and gesture, repetitive behavior (verbal or physical), sensory disintegration, and so forth.
ADHD is a neuro developmental disorder which causes hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsiveness in children. The child will persistently show bouts of inattention in daily activities, excessive motor activity, fidgeting, tapping, or hasty actions and so on.
This refers to difficulty in intellectual and adaptive functioning in conceptual, social and practical domains. It ranges from mild, moderate, severe and profound. Depending on the severity level their abilities to perform daily activities differ. In simple words, this refers to children whose IQ scores tend to be lower than average.
It is a genetic disorder caused due to presence of all or part of third copy of chromosome 21. There is no cure for Down Syndrome. Education and proper care have been shown to improve quality of life. It can be identified during pregnancy though pre-natal screening.
To diagnose the child with either of the above mentioned disorders one has to undergo an assessment procedure and then a specified plan can be laid down to them which may include counseling, occupational therapy, speech therapy and many more.
The important thing is to realise that a diagnosis of any of the above need not be the end of the world. Today, there are many interventions, management programmes, and remedial plans available to help integrate children with developmental disorders into the mainstream of society. Hence, it is important that if such a problem exists, as parents, we aim for early identification, so that intervention can start early.
Ms. Nupoor Karnik